There are almost as many different designs for the layout of the starting air system as there are engine rooms. Ships fitted with 2 stroke slow speed engines and fixed pitch propellers require a much higher capacity systems than ships with medium speed engines and CP. propellers because the engine has to be stopped and restarted many times during maneuvering and must be able to overcome the forces generated on the propeller from the inertia of the ship passing through the water when the engine is reversed to overcome forward momentum.
Having said that the factors that primarily govern the design of the system is the volume of air required to start the engine mutable times (usually 6) during maneuvering, the volumetric capacity of the air receivers at the required working pressure to provide sufficient air volume for starting, the size of pipe required to deliver the necessary volume of air to the engine and the capacity of the air compressors to replenish the air supply in a set period of time.
The rules that cover these requirements are usually set by the class societies in conjunction with engine and propeller manufacturer.
Troubleshooting 101 "Don't over think it - K.I.S.S. it"