One of the basic ways to decrease harmful emissions of by-product gases is to improve fuel efficiency of engines. The size of harmful emissions is determined by perfection of a design of internal combustion engine. The higher the efficiency coefficient of the engine is the better its fuel efficiency, the higher its ecological qualities.
Current engines of internal combustion are constructed under the classical circuit, namely, the cylinder, the piston, a rod, a cranked shaft. It is necessary to note, that in traditional engines a number of well-known deficiencies takes place, namely:
1. An inefficient combination of pressure upon the piston and tangential force on cranked shaft.
Here it is necessary to note two aspects:
а) process of combustion of a mixture begins before the piston arrives at “top dead point” and it allows to assume, that the movement of the piston to the ”top dead point” is counteracted by total pressure: the sum of the degree of compression, and increasing pressure of the inflamed mixture, and that results in loss of power.
b) during the maximal increasing of pressure and combustion of 80-90 % of the mixture, the cranked shaft turns by angle φ from 0 ° up to 90 °. Thus the transfer ratio of tangential force to force working on the piston changes from the value of zero up to the value of one.
Thus, during the turn of a cranked shaft from 0 up to 90 degrees, the combination of two phenomena is observed:
а) Change of pressure from maximal up to minimal;
b) Change of a transfer ratio of tangential force to force working on the piston from the value of zero up to the value of one.
2. Engine of the internal combustion uses in average only 75 % of fuel and 25 % goes in the exhaust pipe and muffler. Namely this part of fuel is burning in the catalyst. But catalyst is very expensive device and it requires the substantial part of powerful of engine for pumping fuel through a dense net of surfaces of catalyst. There are several reasons for this phenomenon and one of them is the very short time of process of burning. The average time of burning of fuel in the cylinder is 0.001sec. In other words the effectivity of the engine depends on the length of the motion of piston. But the length of the motion of the piston is directly related with the size of crankshaft and this relationship limits the length of the motion of the piston.
3. The largest losses occur when friction arises in the piston-sleeve combination (45-55% of all losses due to friction in the engine). A primary reason for these losses is the sign-variable lateral force arising in piston-sleeve combination that changes its direction during the turn of a cranked shaft up to 180 degrees.
Now it is possible to formulate a task. The force affecting the power shaft must depend on only pressure during the entire movement of the piston. The length of the motion of the piston must provide the increased time for burning of fuel and must not depend on the size of the power shaft. Design of engine must not cause reactions in piston-sleeve combination.
A typical feature of the suggested engine is that the shoulder of tangential force on the power shaft on all way of moving of the piston remains constant and depends on the size of impeller.
Change of magnitude of the torque in this case is defined only by one factor, namely, change of pressure in the cylinder in the process of moving of the piston.
Statistical sets of variations of torque in the suggested design and in the design with the cranked shaft during the turning of power shafts from 0 to 180 degrees are characterized by average arithmetic values. An average arithmetic value of the torque in the suggested design is 1.83 times greater than average arithmetic value of the torque in an existing design.
Since the average torque on the power shaft in the suggested design is 1.83 times greater than the average torque in traditional engines, it is possible to consider that power also 1.83 times greater at the same level of fuel consumption. Hence, it will allow to reduce the emission of by-product gases in the same degree.
In the suggested engine design the operating conditions of piston-sleeve combination are essentially improved, due to exclusion of sign-variable lateral force that allows to lower the cost of manufacturing, increase engine resource, increase efficiency coefficient.
In the suggested design does not sense to ignite mixture before "top dead point", as they do in traditional engine designs, because the length of the motion of the piston may be longer in the suggested design and provide the increased time for burning of fuel and decreased level of the fuel emission.
The suggested solution increases capacity of the engine due to the factors considered above, not resorting to increase in number of revolutions of the engine that results in increase in thermal intensity, reduction in reliability and wear resistance.