Engine of internal combustion without crankshaft
Modern scales of production of piston engines of internal combustion have resulted in their significant impact on environment. Emissions from engines of internal combustion essentially increase concentration of the chemical substances in the air, water, soil and become dangerous to human life. The problem now has no solution and at the same time is characterized by the steady tendency of increase.
One of the basic ways to decrease harmful emissions of by-product gases is to improve fuel efficiency of engines. The size of harmful emissions is determined by perfection of a design of internal combustion engine. The higher the efficiency coefficient of the engine is the better its fuel efficiency, the higher its ecological qualities.
It is necessary to note, that huge work on perfection of engines now is being done and significant results in decrease in emissions in an environment are being achieved.
At the same time, the tendency of increasing impact on environment remains, and prompts the search for new solutions to the problem.
Current engines of internal combustion are constructed under the classical circuit, namely, the cylinder, the piston, a rod, a crankshaft. It is necessary to note, that in traditional engines a number of well-known deficiencies takes place, namely:
1. An inefficient combination of pressure upon the piston and tangential force on crankshaft.
Here it is necessary to note two aspects:
а) process of combustion of a mixture begins before the piston arrives at “top dead point” and it allows to assume, that the movement of the piston to the ”top dead point” is counteracted by total pressure: the sum of the degree of compression, and increasing pressure of the inflamed mixture, and that results in loss of power.
b) during the maximal increase of pressure and combustion of 80-90 % of the mixture, the crankshaft turns by angle φ from 0 ° up to 90 °. Thus the transfer ratio of tangential force to force working on the piston changes from the value of zero up to the value of one.
Thus, during the turn of a crankshaft from 0 up to 90 degrees, the combination of two phenomena is observed:
а) Change of pressure from maximal up to minimal;
b) Change of a transfer ratio of tangential force to force working on the piston from the value of zero up to the value of one.
2. The largest losses occur when friction arises in the piston-sleeve combination (45-55% of all losses due to friction in the engine). A primary reason for these losses is the sign-variable lateral force arising in piston-sleeve combination that changes its direction during the turn of a cranked shaft up to 180 degrees.
3. Engine of the internal combustion uses in average only 75 % of fuel and 25 % goes in the exhaust pipe and muffler. Namely this part of fuel is burning in the catalyst. But catalyst is very expensive device and it requires the substantial part of powerful of engine for pumping fuel through a dense net of surfaces of catalyst. It is known that for a full and complete combustion of the fuel vapor desirable high temperature and high pressure. When the piston is at top dead point, the compressed mixture is ignited. But immediately when the piston passed the top dead point, it starts to move down with the significant increasing of space above the piston. With the spread of the flame front of the mixture in the combustion chamber the first portions of mixture will burnt at high temperature and high pressure. But the latest portion of hot mixture burns under condition of the sharply declining of pressure and falling of temperature. For this reason, part of the mixture does not have time to burn or not burn fully.
Now it is possible to formulate a task.
1. The force which affecting the power shaft must depend on only pressure during the entire movement of the piston.
2. The process of burning must start in the closed combustion chamber without moving of the piston.
3. Design of engine must not cause reactions in piston-sleeve combination.
A typical feature of the suggested engine is that the shoulder of tangential force on the power shaft on all way of moving of the piston remains constant.
Change of magnitude of the torque in this case is defined only by one factor, namely, change of pressure in the cylinder in the process of moving of the piston.
On the diagram shows the change in moments in the suggested and existing designs. Statistical sets of variations of moments in the suggested design and in the design with the crankshaft during the turning of power shafts from 0 to 180 degrees are characterized by average arithmetic values. An average arithmetic value of the moment in the suggested design is 1.83 times greater than average arithmetic value of the moment in an existing design.
Work is determined by the moment and a turn angle
Ç = M φ, (1)
Where M - the moment;
φ – a turn angle of a shaft.
Since the average moment on the power shaft in the suggested design is 1.83 times greater than the average moment in traditional engines, it is possible to consider that power also 1.83 times greater at the same level of fuel consumption. Hence, it will allow to reduce the emission of by-product gases in the same degree.
In the suggested engine design the operating conditions of piston-sleeve combination are essentially improved, due to exclusion of sign-variable lateral force that allows to lower the cost of manufacturing, increase engine resource, increase efficiency coefficient.
In the suggested design the mixture is ignited at the “top dead point". The piston remains motionless during rotation of the power shaft by 90 degrees. During this time pressure above piston sharply increases. When the piston begins to move the increased pressure affects the power shaft and hence the capacity also is increased. The motionless of the piston allows to burn more fuel mixture and hence to decrease emission of engine.
Also it is necessary to note that the intake and exhaust valves in a new engine are opened or closed during 2 strokes. It means that time for exhaust of gases from chamber of combustion and for intake fuel in chamber of combustion is significantly increased and therefore significantly increased coefficient of fuel efficiency.
The suggested solution increases of capacity of the engine due to the factors considered above, not resorting to increase in number of revolutions of the engine that results in increase in thermal intensity and by-product gases gas emission, reduction in reliability and wear resistance.