Certification Assistance for Marine Engineers
Canadian First Class ME
Engineering Knowledge - Motors (2)
In Canada, Transport Canada administers the Marine Engineering examination process; visit the Training Page for details on the process. The actual exam consist of nine (9) questions randomly drawn from a question bank of the various subject. Six (only) must be answered in a 3.5hrs time frame. The exam questions are similar to these, presented below, and are drawn heavily from similar question in the Reed's Marine Engineering series of books.
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Transport Canada has ask us to advise users of this webpage to keep in mind that these questions are not the exact questions found in their exams. Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net is not affiliated with Transport Canada and these questions have been gathered from various sources.
1. The machinery control system in your present ship is pneumatic, whilst that in a sister ship in which you previously sailed is electrical. As Chief Engineer, write to the head office giving a general comparison of the two systems and highlighting those aspects where one system is demonstratively superior to the other.
2 With reference to steel, what is meant by the following terms: annealing; tempering; and case hardening? Describe how these processes are carried out, and what materials used in marine engineering are so treated.
3 Prior to the commencement of the present voyage, the company decided to dispense with the services of the electrical officers in their fleet. As Chief Engineer, report to head office at the termination of the present voyage commenting upon the ability of your staff to cope with all the faults that arose in the main, instrumentation, and electrical control systems during the voyage and making suggestions how this additional work load can be carried out more effectively in the future.
4. The need has arisen to discharge ashore some two hundred tonne of heavily emulsified and totally unusable fuel which has defied all attempts at separation. As Chief Engineer, report to head office justifying this action explaining how contamination and emulsification arose, the various attempts at separation undertaken and the measure instituted to avoid repetition.
5. Describe the open hearth process of manufacturing steel. Describe the manufacture of steel by the acid hearth and the basic hearth process. What is the percentage of carbon in mild steel? What are the physical properties of mild steel and east iron?
6. Official complaints have been lodged with the company concerning the lack of comfort in the crew accommodation last voyage, both under European winter and tropical conditions. As Chief Engineer, report to head office on the problems encountered with the air conditioning plant and the steps taken to overcome them and avoid their repetition in the future.
7. The necessity has arisen for the complete replenishment of the main plant with distilled water. As Chief Engineer, report to head office justifying the temporary measures taken, particularly those to avoid further trouble on voyage and suggesting permanent measure to avoid repetition.
8. With reference to motor ships, what is brake thermal, indicated thermal, and mechanical efficiency? How are they obtained?
9. Whilst approaching dock gates, the main engines refused to respond to bridge control, driving ahead instead of braking astern, until the bow made contact with the dock wall. As Chief Engineer, report to head office the circumstances of the case, the temporary measure instituted to avoid further trouble this voyage and suggesting permanent measures to avoid repetition in the future.
10. Describe the preparations necessary for the overhaul of a 3000 kW, 4 stroke, solid injection diesel engine. What faults would you expect to find?
11. What attention is required to keep a three stage air compressor in good working order? In the complete overhaul of the compressor, what faults would you expect to find? Why is it important to use the correct type and quality of lubricating oil?
12. Sketch and describe an oil burning System for a boiler.
13. What is the difference between a purifier and a clarifier? How do they operate? What is the purpose of running fresh water through them?
14. What is meant by "constant pressure" and "constant volume" in connection with the heat cycles of internal combustion engines? With the aid of line sketches, explain both cycles.
15. Describe with the aid of a sketch, a device used to measure the depth of oil in a tank. The instrument in question may be used without opening the tank. Does the specific gravity of the oil have any effect on the reading of this gauge?
16. What is meant by "permanent set" of a piece of metal? How does it affect the material and would it be safe to use? What would be the effect if is straightened? What treatment would you give it?
17. On some two stroke diesel engines, a reciprocating pump or rotary blower is used for engine, and on some engines an independent blower is used. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these methods, and their effect on the thermal efficiency of the engine.
18. Explain the alignment of tail shaft and engine shafting, and the installing of an engine.
19. On airless injection diesel engines with automatic fuel valves, the fuel pumps are placed as close to the injectors as possible. Why is this done? What adjustments would have to be made if the fuel lines were of varying lengths?
20. With reference to a crankshaft, what is meant by torsional vibration and critical speed? What are the dangers of running at a critical speed, and what is done to prevent it?
21. Sketch a fuel oil system showing two centrifuge, day tanks, and the various valves and fittings. What are its advantages, and what attention does this system need to keep it in good working order?
22. Describe a C02 system of refrigeration stating the temperatures and pressures in the various parts of the system and the materials used for pipes, valves, and gauges. State the advantages of this system over the ammonia refrigeration system.
23. Describe how to line up an engine and where and what materials are used to seal.
24. Discuss the properties of fuel oil and lubricating oil. If these oils contained sulphur, how would this affect the running of the engine?
25. What are the requirements for good combustion in a diesel engine? What would be the cause of black, white, and blue smoke, and what would be the remedies?
26. Sketch and describe a turbo supercharger. Why is the temperature of the exhaust higher in the exhaust pipe than at the cylinder heads?
27. Sketch and describe a fuel metering pump. How is the pump arranged for astern running?
28. Several bumps are felt in the engine room and recorded by the engineer on watch. As Chief
Engineer, what action, if any, would you take?
29. Name three methods of making steel and describe one fully.
30. Referring to the testing of metals, what is meant by: percentage elongation; yield point; and percentage contraction of area? Give average figures for mild steel.
31. Describe how an engine is lined up and secured in a ship.
32. Write a letter to a shipowner regarding an engine breakdown, with suggestions for avoiding a reoccurrence.
33. When flaws resembling cracks are found on the journals or crankpins of the main engines how are these tested to determine if they are cracks? What would be the cause of this condition?
34. Sketch and describe a solid injection fuel pump of the Bosch type.
35. Why are conditions of isothermal compression desired in an air compressor, and adiabatic
conditions in a diesel engine? How are these conditions aided? What physical properties prevent these conditions from being perfect?
36. Your ship is grounded and damaged at the engine room After hull repairs, what would you
do to ensure safe operation of the machinery?
37. Sketch and describe the construction and principle of a pneumatic tank gauge Would the specific gravity affect the readings? State whether or not this instrument is accurate.
38. Describe how the alignment of the piston and piston rod is tested in relation to the crankshaft in a marine engine.
39. Sketch and describe the under-piston system of supercharging in a four stroke diesel engine. What effect does this have on efficiency? What are the faults with this type of system?
40. Enumerate the factors that should be considered when choosing between a sand-casting process and a die-casting process. Describe with the aid of a sketch the sand-casting process showing the pattern in the flask and the names of the parts.
41. Describe a coil ignition system for a gasoline engine.
42. You are in a foreign port and there is no dry-dock available. You have a damaged propeller
on a single screw vessel with engines and boilers admidships on a motor ship. How would
you replace the damaged propeller with the spare?
43. Describe a C02 fire extinguishing system as fitted on board ship. How would you ascertain the contents of a C02 bottle?
44. Describe by means of sketches a single collar thrust block. How is the oil circulated and what is the principle of operation? What working pressure would you expect to find in the single collar thrust as compared to a multi collared thrust?
45. What are the metals used and the physical properties you would expect to find in: cylinder liners for a diesel; valves required for a diesel; diesel engine crankshaft; and the combustion chamber tube plates of a boiler?
46 Sketch and describe a ballast pumping and flooding system for a ship that you are familiar with. What are the sizes of pipe in the system and what are the capacities of the pumps in this system?
47. Describe a cylinder cover of an internal combustion engine with which you are familiar.
48. Name the main parts of a large 4 stroke diesel engine and state the materials from which they are made.
49. Sketch and describe a cylinder liner for a large two stroke diesel engine which is water cooled.
50. Sketch and describe the arrangement for reversing in small diesel engines. Why is this system not used in larger engines?
51. if the thrust block holding down bolts became slack, what detrimental effect would this have on the working of the engine? What are the indications of slack coupling bolts in tunnel shafting? what damage could be done if the shafting between the main engine and the propeller was not properly aligned?
52. Explain the following and how they are arrived at: yield point; ultimate strength, elongation; and reduction of area.
53. if you were the Chief Engineer on a motor vessel going into dry-dock for a periodical inspection, what are the preparations you would make and the inspections you would carry out on the underwater side of the hull, and in the fuel tanks?
54. Make a diagram showing the various cylinder pressures and temperatures throughout the cycle in a four stroke diesel engine.
55. Assume the ship on which you are sailing had grounded and was due to dry-dock at the end of the voyage. What troubles would you anticipate during the rest of the voyage and what would you do in dry-dock?
56. Draw a timing diagram for a four stroke diesel engine, and produce from it an indicator diagram. Show on the diagram the points of opening and closing of the various valves relative to the cycle.
57. State the chemical composition of the following metals and give their physical properties: babbitt metal; stainless iron; stainless steel; and monel metal. State a use for each of these metals in marine practice.
58. Describe a Mercurial barometer.
59. Describe the construction of a flywheel .suitable for a 355 mm (14") shaft. Show how it is fitted to the shaft. What are the advantages of fitting a flywheel? Why could it be reduced in weight for some large diesel engines?
60. What is meant by swept volume, clearance volume, and compression ratio? What is the compression ratio of a gasoline engine and a heavy duty diesel engine? What would be the effect of changing the clearance volume on a diesel engine? What is the effect on the compression ratio if the clearance volume is increased?
61. Describe four different methods of non-destructive testing.
62. Describe a pyrometer. Where is it used in motor ships and steamships? Why is it superior to a thermometer?
63. You are Chief Engineer of a vessel. Write a letter to the Superintendent Engineer explaining the breakdown which has occurred, and give your recommendation for repair.
64. What modifications must be made to a diesel engine when changing from a low viscosity
fuel to a high viscosity fuel? What treatment for the fuel is necessary?
65. Sketch and describe a scavenge pump. What is the relationship between the volume of the pump and the engine cylinders?
66. Explain why it is necessary to have intercoolers on a multi-stage compressor. What attention does this require to keep them in a good and safe working condition? Sketch and describe the construction of an intercoolers suitable for a working pressure of 24 bar. State the materials used.
67. Describe the operation and principle of construction of an aneroid barometer. In what units is the instrument graduated? What useful purpose does it serve? What is the normal atmospheric pressure reading at sea level?
68. What is the composition of white metal? What is its use in marine engineering?
69. Why do some large diesel engines have "through" tie bolts fitted? Sketch one of these bolts showing how it is fitted to the engine. What would be the result of one of these tie bolts becoming slack? How can they be dispensed with in some types of large diesel engines?
70. Describe in detail the procedure you would follow to start up a lifeboat engine.
71. Discuss the merits and demerits of port scavenging and valve scavenging in a two stroke engine. Some diesel engines have "Uniow" scavenging. Explain how this form of scavenging is effected, and state the type of engine suited to this form of scavenging.
72. What are, in your opinion, the duties of a Chief Engineer when the vessel is dry-docked, commencing before dry-docking takes place?
73. What is the purpose of a camshaft for: a 2 stroke diesel engine; and a 4 stroke diesel engine. What material is used for camshafts? How are camshafts driven?
74. In a 4 stroke engine, how are the air inlet and exhaust outlet valves operated? Which gives the most trouble and why?
75. Where do the highest heat losses take place in a diesel engine?
76. Describe fully any type of water tube boiler found in a motor vessel, suitable for supplying steam for cargo winches and other auxiliary machinery. Of what material are the parts made? List the fittings on the boiler, describe their purpose, and their position on the boiler.
77. Fires sometimes occurs the scavenge air trunks of two stroke internal combustion engines. Discuss the causes of such fires and the measures taken to prevent them.
78. What might cause the piston in a heavy internal combustion engine to overheat, and what steps should be taken to bring it back to normal condition?
79. State the approximate proportion of carbon contained in: cast steel; and cast iron. Mention
the forms in which the carbon may occur in each. Compare the physical properties of these two metals and name some of the more important parts of machinery for which cast steel is used.
80. Describe a salinometer and explain what it measures. Why may the density of water in a salinometer pot be higher than the density of the water in the boiler or evaporator? How is this instrument graduated?
81. Describe with the aid of sketches, a dynamometer suitable for measuring the brake power of a large internal combustion engine during its shop trials. Explain how the brake power is obtained by its use.
82. An engine shaft connected to a thrust shaft having intermediate and tail shafts has broken.
The break occurred in the after web of the crank. A new crank shaft and main bearings are to be installed. State the causes of this break and how you would proceed to install the new shaft, and give the remedies to prevent reoccurrence of this breakage. The engine has not been overloaded.
83. Describe a method of diesel electric propulsion, including control and reversal.
84. Describe the cylinder head of a 4 stroke diesel engine. How is the head secured to the cylinder? What are the most common troubles experienced with cylinder heads?
85. The engines of a ship, after having done three years' commission, are suspected of being out of line. State fully what you would do to examine this defect and the steps necessary to rectify it.
86. Sketch and describe any type of fuel injection valves with which you are familiar, stating the type of engine and fuel injection system with which it is employed. Explain how the amount of oil is regulated for various speeds.
87. Sketch and describe a governor for an auxiliary engine. Describe its operation.
88. Draw indicator diagrams from two and four stroke diesel engines. Show how the mean indicated pressure is arrived at. Show how a constant is determined for working out the indicated power. How are indicator diagrams taken from a trunk type engine?
89. Describe the two types of barometers which are commonly used, and explain their actions. For what purpose is a barometer used by marine engineers? Is the instrument affected by changes in temperature?
90. If a lifeboat engine refused to start, what would you do to check possible causes?
91. Describe a supercharger and its operation. What is the effect of supercharging on the following: cylinder pressures and temperatures; mean effective pressure; power; thermal efficiency; fuel consumption?
92. You are Chief Engineer on a vessel. Write a letter to the superintendent engineer regarding a cracked cylinder head, how it was repaired, and giving suggestions for the prevention of a reoccurrence.
93. Describe in detail any oil purifier you are familiar with. Why is water added to the purifier?
Explain the differences between a purifier and a clarifier.
94. describe the process of electric welding. What treatment does the metal receive? What parts of a boiler may be welded? State where it can be used for the repair of main propulsion machinery.
95. Define heat, temperature, sensible heat, and latent heat. Describe an experiment for finding
the mechanical equivalent of heat. By whom was this theory advanced?
96. Describe an engine suitable for a lifeboat.
97. Describe a single collar type of thrust as fitted to a large direct drive diesel engine. What
advantage has this type of thrust block over the horseshoe type? How is the thrust secured?
98. Describe how an oil fired auxiliary boiler is started up from cold.
99. Describe in detail the construction of a large fresh water cooler. How is the sea water prevented from entering the fresh water space?
100. Describe a Hele-Shaw pump as used in a hydraulic steering gear.
101 .How is reversing carried out in a heavy oil engine? Explain clearly the operations in order.
What safety devices or interlocks are fitted?
102. Describe an air starting system by use of a line sketch for a diesel engine showing all the valves and fittings. Which valves operate automatically?
103. Describe the functions of the following: synchroscope; borescope, stethoscope, stroboscope; oscilloscope; and microscope. State which would be used or carried on board ship.
104. State the physical properties of the following materials and give an example of the purpose
for which they are used: Muntz metal; aluminum bronze; phosphor bronze; and Cupro nickel.
105. How are cams fitted on a camshaft? What provision is there for the adjustment of fuel cams and what would be the result if the clearance was incorrect?
106. Where would scale be found in a boiler? Discuss its causes, effects, and remedies.
107. Sketch and describe a starting air receiver. State the material used for the construction of this air receiver. List the fittings and mountings attached to it and state the function of each. What regular care and attention does such a receiver require? What determines the capacity of a starting air receiver and what is the usual storage pressure?
108. Describe an over speed governor suitable for a propelling engine.
109. How is the speed of a lifeboat engine controlled and how is it reversed?
110. Describe the construction and action of a mechanically operated fuel injection valve for a 4
stroke diesel engine, having a common rail system. What maintenance is required for this valves? Draw a valve timing diagram for a 4 stroke engine, giving the points of opening and closing of the various valves.
111. Discuss the various causes of overheating of cylinder liners, and give remedies for each.
112. Discuss the various causes of smoky exhaust in diesel engines and how they &e remedied.
113. A ship has been laid up for several years. The ship is then placed in dry-dock for a complete survey. Describe how you would survey one of the double bottom tanks in a hold. What precautions would you take? State what you would look for and what you would expect to find.
114. Sketch and describe a hydrometer.
115.Give the flash point and viscosity for a good lubricating oil for a diesel engine. Describe a lubricating system for a large, dry sump diesel engine. What care is given to the lubricating oil?
116. Sketch and describe a lube oil system piping for a diesel engine with a by-pass filter. How many oil pumps are used and what for?
117. Why is air compressed in two or three stages? What faults are likely to develop in air compressors and how are they remedied?
118. Sketch and describe an electro-hydraulic steering gear. Include an explanation of the pump
and show how rudder shock is provided for.
119. What is the maximum pressure at which acetylene can be stored in liquid form? What happens at pressures in excess of this? What various types of flame can be obtained when
acetylene gas is burned?
120. Discuss salt water cooling, fresh water cooling, and oil cooling in diesel engines.
121 Explain the purpose of a main thrust block. Describe a Mitchell Thrust Block. Give a sketch of a pad showing the method of achieving an oil wedge and state the clearance you would expect.
122. Define the following and give approximate figures for any type of diesel engine you are familiar with: thermal efficiency; mechanical efficiency; scavenge efficiency; and volumetric efficiency.
123. A 600 kW 4 stroke solid injection engine is not developing its full power. There is an exhaust pyrometer and a pressure indicator on board. State how you would proceed to remedy this situation and how you would balance the engine.
124. A small motor ship is fitted with a vertical oil fired fire tube boiler carrying a pressure of 8 bar. Describe how you would overhaul the boiler and fittings. What type of fire extinguishing equipment would be required near this boiler?
125. Sketch and describe a piston for a diesel engine, stating the type of engine, the metal it is made of, and the method of cooling.
126. Describe a Mitchell Thrust Block for a main engine. What are its advantages? Show by means of a sketch how it is fitted to the adjacent parts of the hull and how movement is prevented.
127. Describe a centrifugal oil purifier and explain in detail how separation occurs. Should a purifier be worked at its rated capacity if’s the minimum efficiency of separation is desired?
How often should it be cleaned? where would it be installed in the lubricating oil system? What is meant by "viscosity" of an oil?
128. Describe a pressure gauge and explain how it operates. What is done to prevent the gauge from being damaged by hot steam?
129. What would be the effect of a leaky exhaust valve? Give the cause and the remedy. Describe a pyrometer and give the exhaust temperature of a 4 stroke diesel engine.
130. How is the main engine thrust transmitted to the vessel? Use a sketch to explain. Why is it that one design can carry a higher pressure between the collar and bearing surface than another?
131. State the reasons why a flexible coupling is fitted with geared turbines. Sketch and describe any flexible coupling you know. Explain how it works and its purpose.
132. What is meant by the coefficient of friction? Describe an experiment to find it.
133. Give a list of the materials used, together with their physical properties, in the manufacture of the following: exhaust gas turbine blades; scavenge pump valves; piston rings for high speed diesel engines; lube oil heat exchanger tubes; and high pressure boiler stop valve body.
134. Referring to oils, what is meant by viscosity, open and closed flash point, fire point, and pour point?
135. What is meant by the flash point of an oil? How is it obtained? What are the approximate flash points of the following oils: diesel oil; bunker oil; kerosene; gasoline.
136.Sketch and describe a Ward-Leonard type electric steering gear. How is emergency steering effected?
137. Which oil would you expect to have a higher specific gravity, Bunker "C" or Crude? Name the properties desirable for oil in a refrigerator and in a turbine gear box. Name two additives used in fuel or lube oils and explain their purpose.
138. What are the characteristics of fuel and lubricating oils?
139. With reference to a fire or explosion, explain the significance of the following properties of a flammable gas: vapor pressure; explosive limits; flashpoint; density.
140. Describe a dynamo engine suitable for marine use.
141.What is an oily water separator used for? What precaution must be taken when pumping out tanks that have previously contained oil, fuel, or water contaminated with oil? Why is it wrong to pump oil overboard?
142. Describe the construction and action of the armature and commutator of a compound wound dynamo.
143. Describe a moving coil meter. Show by means of a sketch how it is connected as an ammeter and a voltmeter. What are the advantages of this type of meter over other types?
144. Sketch and describe a steam injector.
145. Describe a vacuum gauge. In what units is a vacuum measured?
146. What are the chief constitutes of coal which produce heat? Describe the chemical actions which take place during combustion. Give a well-known expression for the heat value in coal. What is meant by "higher calorific value" and "lower calorific value?
147. Sketch and describe a feed pump for an auxiliary boiler.
148. Describe the thrust block from your last ship and show in detail how it is secured. What is the object of a thrust block?
149. Describe how engine wear~own and liner clearances are measured and recorded.
150. Describe an air starting valve which is operated pneumatically.
151. What gases would be present in a fuel tank after it was emptied and what dangers would exist? What methods could be used to clear it of gas, and what precautions would be taken before it can be entered safely?
152. Describe how top dead center is found by means of a trammel on a large marine diesel engine. How would you make a trammel for future use?
153. What solids are dissolved in fresh water and in salt water? What effect do they have in boilers, evaporators, and water jackets? At what temperature do they precipitate?
154.Describe a thermometer. How would you tell by inspection whether a thermometer was
graduated with the Centigrade or Fahrenheit scale, if there was no name on the instrument to indicate the type of graduation?
155. What procedures are used for welding cast iron, cast steel, and mild steel?
156. What are the usual constitutes of diesel fuel oil? Explain the process of combustion and name the product resulting from the combustion of diesel fuel oil. Give the approximate calorific value of this oil. What impurities and substances may be found in fuel oils which could give rise to engine defects, and what defects could these cause?
157. Describe a system of under-piston scavenging.
158. What is meant by the density of boiler water? What instrument is used to find it? How is it graduated?
159. Describe fully any type of hydraulic steering gear with which you are familiar. Explain its operation and how its movements are controlled from the bridge. Include any emergency fittings which are provided for use in the event of damage to: the telemotor; the steering gear motive power unit or units; and the steering gear.
160. Describe an ignition system for a gasoline engine which employs a magneto.
161. What is meant by constant volume and constant pressure in heat cycles of engines? With the aid of sketches, explain both cycles indicating the cycle of events.
162. Sketch and describe a method of measuring fuel oil in a tank. What effect does the specific gravity of the oil have on the reading?
163. What is meant by the term "thermo-dynamics", and how does it apply to the internal combustion engine?
164. What is the difference between mechanical clearance and clearance volume? Describe how the mechanical clearance is measured. Why should the thickness of bearing white metal always be less than the mechanical clearance in the engine cylinder?
165. Make a sketch showing how a piston, piston rod, and connecting rod are connected in a large engine.
166. What is a welding sequence drawing? What is its purpose? What type of generator is suitable for DC welding and why?
167. What is meant by supercharging? How is it accomplished, and what effect does it have on cylinder pressures and temperatures?
168. Describe an oily water separator as used for handling oily water in ballast tanks. If there was a serious spillage of oil overboard in a harbour, what action would you take as Chief Engineer?
169. Describe a bridge gauge and its use. What other method could be used if no bridge gauge were available?
170. Describe a three stage air compressor with intercoolers. Draw a combined indicator diagram giving the various pressures and temperatures, and showing the effects of intercooling.
171. Describe a system of diesel electric drive. How is maneuvering and reversing carried out?
172. What are the physical properties of the materials used for the following: cylinder liners, exhaust valves; crankshafts; combustion chamber plates; and propeller blades.
I73. A diesel engine has been reassembled after an extensive overhaul. Explain, step by step, the things which should be done to get the engine ready for sea.
174. Make a simple line sketch showing the bilge suction lines for the forepeak, afterpeak, and cargo holds in a vessel having four cargo holds. Give a short description of the arrangement.
175. Sketch and describe a four pole compound wound generator, showing by means of arrows
the direction of current in the windings. How is it affected by varying loads? What governs its speed?
176. You are compelled to operate a boiler on sea water feed, with a continuous blowdown. What is the highest density at which you can operate? Give reasons why you would not operate at a higher or lower density.
177. How are rolling chocks fitted to a vessel? What other methods may be used to minimize rolling?
178. Sketch and describe a rotary lubricating oil pump for a directly reversible diesel engine. Show clearly how the oil is pumped when the engine is reversed.
179. Why is a cold diesel engine difficult to start? What should be done to prevent such a condition from arising?
180. Describe a hydraulic telemotor and steering gear systeUL
181. How would you gauge a cylinder liner and tabulate the wear? What would you consider
the average wear to be, and what is the maximum wear which should be allowed?
182. What methods are used in a motorship to prepare fliel for combustion?
183. Describe the construction of a built-up propeller, showing clearly how the blades are attached to the boss. How would you adjust the blades and find the pitch?
184. Sketch and describe the starter for a shunt wound D.C. motor.
185. What causes the feed water in a boiler to become contamnated? What effect does this have on the boiler and on the condenser tubes? What are the remedies for this condition?
186. Explain the hazards associated when the following are carried as cargo on a ship: bulk coal; methane; bagged flammable powder; and crude oil.
187. What is meant by mechanical clearance and volumetric clearance? Show by means of indicator cards the effect of reducing the mechanical clearance on a steam engine and an air
188. Make an indicator diagram for a 4 stroke engine (diesel) showing pressures and temperatures at important points. On duplicate diagrams show effect by dotted lines of leaking compression rings, early injection, and late injection.
189. Why is it necessary for oil to be changed or purified? What would be a reasonable period of time between oil changes? What would you do with the dirty oil ?
190. Draw an indicator diagram of a 4 stroke engine and with dotted lines show change by supercharging. What advantages are claimed for supercharging?
191. How is the stem frame attached to the ship's huil? Describe a quadrant and tiller and explain how they are fitted to the rudder post.
192. What is meant by the terms "indicated power" and "brake power"? How can these values be obtained? Explain how an indicator mechanism and a dynamometer are used to determine these powers.
193. It has been found necessary to completely replenish all of the oil in the lubricating system of a large motor or steam turbine ship. As Chief Engineer, write a detailed report to the superintendent Engineer justifying this heavy expenditure, the expediencies required to prevent further trouble during the voyage, and suggestions for permanent measures to avoid a reoccurrence of the initial problem.
194.Describe how intermediate shafting is lined up.
195.Describe the methods used on board ship for separation of water from oil. State how the presence of water in oil may be detected and what effect it presence has on: lubricating oil, and combustion of fuel.
196. Describe the "Union-melt" system of welding.
197. Sketch and describe a telemotor system and explain how it controls the movement of the rudder. What could cause slackness in the system and how is it overcome? Explain how the hydraulic system is charged and with what liquid. What provision is made for the expansion of the liquid? To what angle of helm are the telemotor stops adjusted?
198. Make sketches showing how deck beams are fitted to the frames of a ship and how hatch coamings are attached to the deck.
199. What is meant by a short circuit and an. earth? In an electrical installation, how would you proceed to trace these faults? Why and how is a megger used?
200. Referring to a diesel engine, what is meant by "critical speed"? What is a de-tuner?
201. What causes a ridge to form in the ring groove of a piston? What must be done before a new set of piston rings is fitted?
202. Your ship is in dry-dock. How would you determine the wear down in the lignum-vitae tail shaft bearing? The shaft has a diameter of 300 mm. What is the renewable clearance? What would be the effect of excessive clearance in this bearing?
203. Describe how you would remetal a bottom end bearing and how you would proceed to machine it and fit it to the engine. What clearance would you consider necessary if the
crankpin diameter is 35 cm?
204. Name two simple non-destructive tests frequently used in the engine room. Which type of fault may escape detection during an x-ray test? Which test may supplement an x-ray test?
205. Describe a dynamometer and explain how it is used to determine the brake power of an engine. Having obtained the brake power by this instrument, how would you now determine the mechanical efficiency of the engine?
206. Describe a torsionmeter and explain fully how the power of a turbine is found with its aid.
207. Sketch and describe the construction of any 2 or 4 stroke engine showing materials used.
208. Why are the spray holes in the fuel injection nozzles of an airless injection engine smaller for, say a 380 mm diameter cylinder than for a 760 mm cylinder? The smaller cylinder would require proportionately less fuel to be injected each cycle, but would it not be sufficient to keep the same diameter of holes and reduce the number?
209.Describe the stresses set up in main parts of a single-acting 4 stroke diesel engine and a reciprocating steam engine.
210. What are the function of piston rings? How are they made and of what material? Why is a piston tapered?
211. Sketch and describe a starter for an electric motor. What is back EMF, and what is its effect?
212. Use a sketch to illustrate how liners &e secured and sealed.
213. Describe a high pressure fuel pump for solid injection How is the pump operated when the engine is reversed? After an overhaul, how is it timed?
214. Describe in detail a telemotor system. Explain how it works. State what care and maintenance is required.
215. What is spontaneous combustion? How does it occur? What measures are used to prevent this from happening on board ship?
216. List as many physical tests as used on materials for boilers and engine construction as possible. Describe one in detail stating the results you expect to see.
217. Why are lime and soda added to a boiler? What is meant by the acidity of feed water? How is the acidity of boiler water detected?
218. What is "Monel Metal". where is it used in marine engineering?
219. What fire fighting apparatus would be found in an oil-fired boiler space? How would you fight a fire in this space?
220. Write a short essay on the corrosion of the ferrous metals. What methods may be adopted to prevent or retard corrosion?
221. Draw a detailed sketch of a fuel pump for solid injection such as "Bosch". How is quantity
of fuel controlled?
222. Describe a scavenge pump as would be operated from the crank of a 4 stroke diesel engine. Why does a 2 stroke engine require scavenging? What is the relationship between air supplied and the air required and why?
223. Describe the construction and operation of a D.C. motor as used for driving auxiliary equipment on board ship. How is the starting torque affected? Why is the starting torque affected? Why is the starting torque greater with a series wound motor than with a shunt wound motor?
224. Describe, with the aid of sketches, the arrangement of an exhaust gas driven turbo-blower suitable for a six cylinder 2 stroke heavy oil engine. Explain how the engine may be scavenged when running at very slow speeds.
225. What is the cause of an explosion in the following and what precautions can be taken to prevent them: air start lines; air compressors; and main propulsion engines?
226. Explain how you would remetal a main bearing under emergency repairs at sea.
227. What is hunting gear and why is it an essential part of the steering gear? Why is it important to exclude air from telemotor systems and the ram cylinders of steering gears? What methods are employed to rid these systems of air?
228. What would cause the transmitter to fail to return to mid-position? What would cause the rudder to fail to return to mid-ships? What type of auxiliary gear is used with an electro- hydraulic gear if the rudder stock is greater than 228 mm? How would you isolate one unit to put it on stand-by? What prevents one unit from motoring the other?
229. Explain what is meant by an "earth" in an electrical lighting system on board ship, and how it is detected. Make a diagrammatic sketch of a switchboard showing instruments and fittings for two generators.
230. What is meant by each of the following terms: tensile; compression; bending; and shear stresses. Give an example of each one to found in an engine and boiler.
231. .Name the essential instruments and fittings to found on the switchboard of a DC generator. State the purpose of each.
232. How is a large internal combustion engine secured? What provisions are made to tank tops?
233. How is an engine bed plate installed in a ship and lined up?
234. Describe the process of boring out the stern post of a ship to receive the stern tube. How is the boring bar centered?
235. Describe the construction and principle operation of an electric motor. Describe clearly how the armature is made to rotate.
236. Give a brief description of the following: annealing; normalizing; case hardening; and tempering hardening. You wish to know the tensile strength of a piece of steel but you do not wish to subject it to a tensile strength test. How can this be determined approximately?
237. Describe how the crankshaft for a large engine is fitted in place.
238. Describe fully how you would measure the defection of a large crankshaft with a dial gauge through one revolution of the shaft. Explain clearly how the readings obtained are interpreted.
239. Sketch and describe a windlass with which you are familiar. Name the materials used.
240.What is the main difference between a windlass and a winch? Explain how a power driven windlass is reversed.
241. Describe a lifeboat engine, its method of starting and reversing.
242. Describe with sketches an electro-hydraulic steering gear. Give the maximum pressure in the system. How would you steer the ship if this gear was inoperative? Indicate how the rudder is relieved when struck by a heavy sea, and how it is automatically returned to its former position.
243. Sketch and describe a three stage air compressor giving the pressures and temperatures at each stage. What are the advantages of cooling? What type of lubricating oil would be used?
244. Describe the procedure for withdrawing a propeller shaft for inspection. What defects would you look for? What is meant by a continuous liner?
245. An engine has been overhauled and completely reassembled. What precautions would you take before starting up for the first time, particularly to fuel oil, lube oil, fresh water, and the engine itself?
246. With reference to air compressors, what provisions &e made against overheating and excessive pressure? Explain how the piston clearances affect the efficiency of a compressor and illustrate by means of a diagram the advantages of intercooling.
247. Describe a two stage compressor and its action.
248. What is the difference between a blower and a compressor? Describe at least three methods of controlling the output of a compressor. Sketch a compressor valve with which you are familiar.
249. Sketch the general arrangement of the engine room of your last ship showing all main and auxiliary equipment.
250. Describe the construction of a commutator for a D.C. generator. Name the materials used and state why they are used. What would cause sparking at the brushes, and how could it be remedied?
251. Sketch an evaporator. Discuss the factors governing the size of the safety valve. Explain how to operate the evaporator for maximum efficiency.
252. Describe an evaporator and show the method of attachment of the following: coils, doors, and the relief valve. Explain how a continuous blowdown is achieved.
253. Describe the operation of a surface condenser. What are the indications of incorrect water
circulation? Name all the valves and fittings on a circulating water system between the ship side suction and the overboard discharge.
254. Sketch and describe a pressure reducing valve with all its fittings.
255. How is shafting alignment checked while the ship is afloat? Discuss the merits all demerits of shell and pad bearings as used in a shafting system. How does wear down of the prop shaft affect the adjacent bearings?
256. What routine maintenance is performed on an oily water separator? What purpose do test cocks have in the operation of an oily water separator? Describe two possible ways that oil may be carried over to the outlet.
257. Describe the following processes: corrosion fatigue; stress corrosion; casting cracks; and creep cracking. How are they initiated and what means can be taken to stop them?
258. Describe the construction of a cylinder complete with head and liner for a single acting 4 stroke diesel engine. Name the materials used.
259. Describe a rotary-type scavenge pump. How does it operate when the engine is reversed?
260. What impurities are found in lube oils and fuel oils? How would they affect the working of the engine?
261. Describe the construction of a 3 stage air compressor, giving the pressures and temperatures at each stage. How is the air cooled? Where are drains fitted? What type of oil is used and why?
262. Describe a mechanism for lubricating cylinders. How is the expansion of the liner and water jacket allowed for? Where is it fitted in the cylinder?
263. You are on a light fuel burning vessel. Describe in detail the equipment required to convert
to heavy fuel.
264. What is the calorific value of diesel fuel commonly used? What percentage of this would be utilized in the engine? What percentage are the various losses? How can these losses be recovered?
265. Explain what effects the following have on the efficiency of a plate type heat exchanger: plate relief pattern; gasket thickness; number of plates; and pressure differential between plates.
266. Describe with the aid of a sketch a main sea water circulating system protected by an impressed current. Explain how the coolers and valves are protected.
267. Describe an intercoolers. Why are drains and bursting discs or relief valves fitted to intercoolers? What materials are used for: cooler bodies; and cooler tubes? Why are intercoolers fitted? What safety fixtures would you find fitted?
268. An ER rating has been fatally injured. Write a letter to the engineering superintendent detailing the accident.
269. When overhauling a compressor, which parts would you adjust and what would you check after the work was finished?
270. How would you put an extra turn of packing in the stern tube at sea? What special provisions are made to keep sea water out of the hull?
271. Describe an air receiver with which you are familiar. Name all the valves and fittings which would be found on a barge air receiver, and explain why they are necessary.
272. Explain the reason for the following components in a steering gear: Raison Slide; spring in hunting gear; and spring in telemotor system.
273. Explain the method and importance of draining coolers and state what provision is made to guard the intercoolers casing against excessive pressure in the event of a tube failure. What periodic examination of the cooler would you make and why?
274. Why is it necessary to have a governor on a dynamo engine?
275. Describe a diesel-electric drive and give the method employed for altering the speed and reversing.
276. Explain in detail how you would proceed to couple up a second generator with one that is already running.
277. Two generators are connected in parallel and because of a reduction in the load, one is to be taken out of service. Explain in detail how you would do this.
278. What care and maintenance do electric generators and motors require? What are the dangers of excess oil in the pedestal bearings of generators?
279. Describe an alternator. Draw a sketch of the switchboard. State how you would parallel two generators.
280. Sketch and describe a bilge and ballast system.
281. Sketch and describe an engine pressure indicator. What would you expect its reading to be from a 4 stroke and a 2 stroke engine?
282. Define specific heat. Describe an experiment to find the specific heat of copper.
283. Sketch and describe a variable stroke swash plate pump. Show how it is cooled. Where would it be used on board ship?
284. Sketch and describe how a solid injection fuel pump works. How is the delivery of fuel controlled? What materials is it made of?
285. Describe a detuner that you are familiar with. Explain its purpose and operation.
286. Describe how you would find: an earth on an armature coil, an earth on the commutator, and a broken field coil.
287. Make a diagram of a switchboard for three generators showing connections, instruments, and fittings. Describe the operation of the different instruments and meters.
288. Explain exactly what is meant by a constant volume and a constant pressure cycle. Where are they with regards to an engine cycle?
289. Sketch and describe a centrifuge that you are familiar with.
290. Sketch the connections for ground lamps on a D.C. switchboard. How do these lamp indicate a ground and how would you proceed to locate a ground if one was indicated?
291. Describe any type of hydraulic coupling for a main drive. Explain clearly how the torque is transmitted from one shaft to the other.
292. Name three types of clutches used in marine diesels. Describe a clutch as would be fined between the engine and propeller shaft. What regular attention does it need?
293. Describe the following: single reduction gear; and double reduction gear.
294. What effect have the following metals on steel when alloyed: nickel; chromium; and molybdenum? What effect has carbon on steel? Describe the manufacturing process for modular iron.
295. Give a brief description of a steam turbine main propulsion unit in an ocean-going vessel.
296. Describe how the direction of rotation is reversed in the following engines: reciprocating
main steam engine; turbine; steam steering engine; direct drive diesel; and geared diesel.
297. Compare the following types of marine propulsion systems: direct drive diesel engine; geared turbine; turbo electric; and reciprocating steam engine.
298. Describe with the aid of a sketch any form of secondary cell. Discuss the action during charge and discharge and state clearly why alternating current cannot be used for charging. How is the efficiency of an accumulator measured?
299. Sketch the load characteristic curves for shunt and series wound generators. Account for the difference in the shape of the curves and show how these may be combined in one machine.
300. With what details of construction, running, and maintenance should a Chief Engineer become conversant immediately on appointment to a motor vessel having main engines of a type with which he has not had previous experience?
301. When a steering motor is coupled close to the rudder stock, what provision is made to prevent damage to the motor? How is the steering motor controlled from the wheelhouse, and how does the hunting gear operate?
302. Sketch and describe a governor as fitted on a main engine.
303. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of steam reciprocating engines and diesel engines on board ship.
304. Sketch and describe an auxiliary boiler as fitted in a motor ship.
305. It is proposed to build a sister ship to the vessel of which you are Chief Engineer. In answer to a request by the Engineer Superintendent, draft a report suggesting possible improvements to the general engine room layout, piping systems, modifications to the engine, etc., which may be included in the new vessel. Any vessel in which you have served may be taken as a basis for the report.
306.How is the reversal of a heavy oil engine accomplished? Describe briefly, with the aid of a
diagrammatic sketch, a suitable gear for this purpose and explain how it is operated. State the make of the engine.
307. Describe how you would take an indicator diagram from a heavy oil engine or a steam engine. How do you check if the indicator is working properly? State the spring numbers used in indicators for heavy oil and steam engines.
308. Show by means of sketches how the following defects would alter the form of an indicator diagram: partially choked air inlet; partially choked fuel nozzle; leaky piston rings; partially choked silencer; and the late opening of a fuel valve. Explain the effect each of these would have on the running of the engine.
309. Your ship has run aground and suffered severe bottom damage below the engine room. After repairs in a dry-dock, what checks would you make and how would you make them to ensure the alignment of the machinery is correct?
3 10. What is meant by critical speed and what effect does it have on the shaft? What is deflection and how is it measured?
311. What is meant by wear-down of a bearing? Describe how to determine wear-down at the tail shaft. Explain how excessive wear-down affects the tail shaft. Describe the action you would take to cancel excessive clearance. What could result if a ship was operated and the wear-down was too large?
312. Describe in detail the lubricating system of a heavy oil engine in which the pistons are cooled with lubricating oil.
313. What tests are carried out on the metals used for cylinder liners and for shafting? Give suitable figures for each.
314. Sketch and describe a fresh water cooling system for a heavy oil engine. What treatment could be used to prevent corrosion in the water spaces?
315. How are draw cards and light spring diagrams taken from engine cylinders, and for what purpose?
316. Explain the terms "clearance volume" and "swept volume "in an engine cylinder. What is meant by "compression ratio"? What effect would an increase or decrease of clearance volume have on an engine? What would be the compression ratio expected in a diesel engine and a gasoline engine?
317. Describe a pyrometer suitable for measuring exhaust temperatures.
318. Sketch and describe an opposed-piston diesel engine, stating its advantages and disadvantages.
319. If you were to surf the net for a marine engineering website, what would it be. The correct answer is www.dieselduck.net
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Transport Canada has ask us to advise users of this webpage to keep in mind that these questions are not the exact questions found in their exams. Martin's Marine Engineering Page - www.dieselduck.net is not affiliated with Transport Canada and these questions have been gathered from various sources.